Social (in)security – the ambivalence of villagers' perceptions during COVID-19
Zakład Ekonomii Wsi, Instytut Rozwoju Wsi i Rolnictwa PAN, Polska
Katedra Finansów i Rachunkowości, Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, Polska
Sławomir Kalinowski   

Zakład Ekonomii Wsi, Instytut Rozwoju Wsi i Rolnictwa PAN, Nowy Świat 72, 12c/28, 00-330, Warszawa, Polska
Data nadesłania: 03-09-2021
Data ostatniej rewizji: 23-11-2021
Data akceptacji: 20-12-2021
Data publikacji: 07-01-2022
Problemy Polityki Społecznej 2021;54:48–67
The aim of the study is to provide a subjective assessment of security in the social dimension of rural households during the COVID-19 pandemic. To achieve the objective, a four-stage primary study of households in Poland was designed and conducted. Subjective assessments of households’ perceptions about social security are presented. The possibility of loss of financial stability, job loss and deterioration of the household situation was assessed. The respondents also assessed the possibility of a worsening of the situation in the country, an increase in family poverty and an increase in unemployment in Poland. One of the most important findings is the dichotomy of the perceptions of the respondents, who assess the situation of their household better than that of the country. A different perspective on security is also provided by the rural optimism index, which can also be seen as a measure of vulnerability to social security. The considerations and analyses presented can be useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. The study improves knowledge on how households function under conditions of vulnerability. They also constitute a voice in the discussion on security in the social dimension.
Agnoletti, M., Manganelli, S., & Piras, F. (2020). Covid-19 and rural landscape: The case of Italy. Landscape and Urban Planning, 204, 103955,
Akhtar, R. (2021). Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreaks, Environment and Human Behaviour. Cham: Springer.
Asmundson, G. J. G. & Taylor S. (2020). Coronaphobia: Fear and the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 70, 102196.
Bauman, Z. (2000). Liquid Modernity. Polity Press.
Beck, U. (2004). Społeczeństwo ryzyka. W drodze do innej nowoczesności. Wyd. Scholar.
Belanche, D., Casaló, L. V., & Rubio, M. A. (2021). Local place identity: A comparison between residents of rural and urban communities. Journal of Rural Studies, 82, 242–252.
Bu, F., Steptoe, A., & Fancourt, D. (2020). Loneliness during a strict lockdown: Trajectories and predictors during the COVID-19 pandemic in 38,217 United Kingdom adults. Social Science & Medicine, 265, 113521.
Chulasiri, P., Ruwanpathirana, T., Gunawardena, N., Wickramasinghe, C., & Lokuketagoda, B. (2020). Perceptions of the current COVID situation and health, social and economic impact of the current scenario among a rural setting in Anuradhapura district. Journal of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, 7(2), E123 1–13. DOI:
Cortes, G. M. & Forsythe, E. (2020). Impacts of the Covid-19 Pandemic and the Cares Act on Earnings and Inequality. Upjohn Institute Working Paper 20-332.
Cuadros, D. F., Branscum, A. J., Mukandavire, Z., DeWolfe Miller, F., & MacKinnon, N. (2021). Dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic in urban and rural areas in the United States. Annals of Epidemiology, 59, 16–20.
de Luca, C., Tondelli, S., & Åberg, H. (2020). The Covid-19 pandemic effects in rural areas. TeMA — Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 119–132.
Dutta A. & Fischer H. W. (2021). The local governance of COVID-19: Disease prevention and social security in rural India. World Development, 138, 105234.
Gierszewski, J. (2018). Bezpieczeństwo społeczne jako dziedzina bezpieczeństwa narodowego. Historia i Polityka, 23(30), 21–38. DOI:
Halamska, M. (2020). Rural Crumbs of the Pandemic: Communities and Their Institutions. Introduction to the Thematic Issue. Wieś i Rolnictwo, 3(188), 12–16. https://kwartalnik.irwirpan.wa... (accessed: 2021.06.29).
Hall, M. C., Prayag, G., Fieger, P., & Dyason, D. (2020). Beyond panic buying: consumption displacement and COVID-19. Journal of Service Management, ahead-of-print.
Han, J., Meyer, B. D., & Sullivan, J. X. (2020). Income and Poverty in the Covid-19 Pandemic. Social & Personality Psychology eJournal. DOI 10.3386/w27729.
Haghani, M., Bliemer, M. C. J., & Goerlandt, F., Li, J. (2020). The scientific literature on Coronaviruses, COVID-19 and its associated safety-related research dimensions: A scientometric analysis and scoping review. Safety Science, 129, 104806,
Høyland, S. A. (2018). Exploring and modeling the societal safety and societal security concepts — A systematic review, empirical study and key implications. Safety Science, 110, C, 7–22.
Human Development Report (1994). United Nations Development Programme.
Ivan, R. (2011). Deconstructing security. The Romanian Journal of Political Science, 11(2), 105–129.
Igra, M., Kenworthy, N., Luchsinger, C., & Jung, J. K. (2021). Crowdfunding as a response to COVID-19: Increasing inequities at a time of crisis. Social Science & Medicine, 282, 114105.
Jia, Z., Xu, S., Zhang, Z., Cheng, Z., Han, H., Xu, H., Wang, M., Zhang, H., Zhou, Y., & Zhou, Z. (2021). Association between mental health and community support in lockdown communities during the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from rural China. Journal of Rural Studies, 82, 87–97.
Kalinowski, S. & Łuczak A. (2021). Moja sytuacja w okresie koronawirusa. Stage IV. Source material.
Kalinowski, S. & Wyduba, W. (2020). Moja sytuacja w okresie koronawirusa. Raport końcowy. Wyd. IRWiR PAN.
Kalinowski, S. (2014). Pewni niepewności . In Życie na skraju — marginesy społeczne wielkiego. Z. Galor, B. Goryńska-Bittner, S. Kalinowski (eds). Societas Pars Mundi.
Kalinowski, S. (2020a). Od paniki do negacji: zmiana postaw wobec COVID-19.. Wieś i Rolnictwo, 3(188), 45–65.
Kalinowski, S. (2020b). Moja sytuacja w okresie koronawirusa. Stages I–III. Source material.
Kansiime, M. K., Tambo, J. A., Mugambi, I., Bundi, M., Kara, A., & Owuor, C. (2021). COVID-19 implications on household income and food security in Kenya and Uganda: Findings from a rapid assessment. World Development, 137, 105199.
Kerbage, A., Matta, M., Haddad, S., Daniel, P., Tawk, L., Gemayel, S., Amine, A., Warrak, R., Germanos, M., Haddad, F., & Geagea, A. (2021). Challenges facing COVID-19 in rural areas: An experience from Lebanon. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 53, 102013.
Knight, F. H. (1921). Risk, Unicertainty and Profit. Hart, Schaffner and Marx.
Mahmud, M. & Riley, E. (2021). Household response to an extreme shock: Evidence on the immediate impact of the Covid-19 lockdown on economic outcomes and well-being in rural Uganda. World Development, 140, 105318.
Malatzky, C., Gillespie, J., Couch, D. L., & Cosgrave, C. (2020). Why place matters: A rurally-orientated analysis of COVID-19’s differential impacts. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 2(1), 100063.
McCarthy, J. (2020). U.S. Coronavirus Concerns Surge. Government Trust Slides.
McKay, S., Rowlingson, K. (1999). The Aims of Social Security. In Social Security in Britain. Palgrave.
Naeem, M. (2021). Do social media platforms develop consumer panic buying during the fear of Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 58, 102226.
Nolting, T. (2020). COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) in Germany: A holistic approach. Duesseldorf.
Roszkowska, E. & Jefmański, B. (2021). Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Synthetic Measure (I-VIFSM) Based on Hellwig’s Approach in the Analysis of Survey Data. Mathematics, 9(3), 201.
Skrabacz, A. (2012). Bezpieczeństwo społeczne. Podstawy teoretyczne i praktyczne. Dom Wydawniczy Elipsa.
Słownik języka polskiego (2021). PWN.
Sobczyk, M. (2010). Statystyka opisowa). Wydawnictwo C.H. Beck.
Sumner, A., Hoy, C., & Ortiz-Juarez, E. (2020). Estimates of the Impact of COVID-19 on Global Poverty. WIDER Working Paper 2020/43,
Tisdell, C. A. (2020). Economic, social and political issues raised by the COVID-19 pandemic. Economic Analysis and Policy, 68, 17–28.
Tavares F. F. & Betti G., (2021). The pandemic of poverty, vulnerability, and COVID-19: Evidence from a fuzzy multidimensional analysis of deprivations in Brazil. World Development, 139, 105307.
Webb D. & Wills-Herrera E. (2012). Introduction. In D. Webb, E. Wills-Herrera (eds) Subjective Well-Being and Security. Social Indicators Research Series, 46.
Yu, L.-R. & Li, X.-Y. (2021). The effects of social security expenditure on reducing income inequality and rural poverty in China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(4), 1060-1067.
Zalega, T. (2008). Konsumpcja w gospodarstwach domowych o niepewnych dochodach Wyd. Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.
Zwęglińska-Gałecka, D. (2020). Koronakryzys. Lokalne zróżnicowanie globalnej pandemii . Wieś i Rolnictwo, 3(188), 67–90. doi: 10.53098/wir032020/04.