Migration as opportunity? A case study of Polish women: migrants in the UK and returnees in Poland
More details
Hide details
University of Salford
Publication date: 2020-06-01
Problemy Polityki Społecznej 2013;23:105–121
Migration from the new European Union (EU) Member States to the United Kingdom (UK) has been identifi ed as one of the most signifi cant social phenomena of recent times and has been studied extensively, particularly since 2004. Although gendered studies of migration are now gaining recognition, there is limited literature in relation to Polish women. There is now much evidence to support the view that migrant women constitute a large proportion of international migrants; within the European context, migrant women already outnumber their male counterparts. Drawing on a review of secondary literature and preliminary fi ndings from new qualitative research undertaken in Poland and the UK, this paper explores how Polish migrant women negotiate their lives in regard to work and welfare responsibilities when exercising their rights as EU citizens. It is argued that migrant women should be seen as active decision makers and that migration may be considered as an opportunity to bring about change in relation to gender roles. It is concluded that migration presents an opportunity to re-evaluate gender norms.
Ackers, L. (1998). Shifting Spaces. Women, citizenship and migration within the European Union. Bristol: The Policy Press.
Ackers L. & Gill B. (2008). Moving People and Knowledge: Scientifi c Mobility in an Enlarging European Union. Glos: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Anthias, F. & Yuval-Davis, N. (1992). Connecting race and gender. in: F. Anthias; N. Yuval-Davis, Racialized boundaries. Race, nation, gender, colour and class and the anti-racist struggle, pp 96-131. London: Routledge.
Aranda, E.M. (2003). Global Care Work and Gendered Constraints: The Case of Puerto Rican Transmigrants. “Gender and Society”, 17(4), pp. 609-626. doi: 10.1177/0891243203253573.
Bakalar, A.M. (2013). An important lesson for Polish migrants in the Before You Gofi lm. “The Guardian”. Retrieved 14 July 2013 from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/comm... lm-polish-migrants.
Blaikie, N. (2007). Approaches to Social Enquiry. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Borkert, M., Perez, A.M., Scott, S. & De Tona C. (2006). Introduction: Understanding Migration Research (Across National and Academic Boundaries) in Europe. “Forum: Qualitative Social Research”, 7(3).
Caritas (2011). The Female Face of Migration. Retrieved from: http://www.caritas.org/include....
Castles, S. & Miller, M. (2009). The Age of Migration. International Population Movements in the Modern World, 4th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
CBOS (2009). Kobiety 2009. Raport z badań. Warszawa. Retrieved from: http://www.cbos.pl/PL/wydarzen....
CBOS (2006). Kobiety i mężczyźni o podziale obowiązków domowych. Komunikat z badań. Warszawa. Retrieved from: http://www.bezuprzedzen.org/do....
CBOS (2006). Praca Polaków w Krajach Unii Europejskiej. Komunikat z badań. Warszawa. Retrieved from: http://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL....
Cook, J., Dwyer, P. & Waite, L. (2011). The experiences of Accession 8 migrants in England: Motivations, work and agency. [Electronic version]. “International Migration”, Vol. 49, No. 2, 54-79.
Cooke, L.P. (2011). Gender-class equality in political economies. New York: Routledge.
Cox, S. (2008). What if all the Poles went home? BBC News. Retrieved from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/mag....
Datta, A. (2009). Places of everyday cosmopolitanisms: East-European construction workers in London. “Environment and Planning A”, 41(2), pp. 353-370. doi: 10.1068/a40211.
Drinkwater, S; Eade, J. & Garapich, M. (2006). Poles Apart? EU Enlargement and the Labour Market Outcomes of Immigrants in the UK. IZA Discussion Paper No. 2410. Bonn: The Institute for the Study of Labour IZA.
Drummond, M. & Judd, D. (2011). Challenges to migration. in: B. Temple, D. Judd & J. Krzyszkowski (eds.), Polish Journeys: Through Social Welfare Institutions (pp. 170-199). Warszawa: Dom Wydawniczy ELIPSA.
Engle, L. B. (2004). The World in Motion. Short Essays on Migration and Gender. Switzerland: International Organisation for Migration.
Finch, J. (1991). Feminist research and social policy. in: M. Maclean & D. Groves (Eds.), Women’s Issues in Social Policy (pp. 194-204). London: Routledge.
Grabowska-Lusińska, I. (2012). Migrantów śćieżki zawodowe bez granic. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.
Grabowska-Lusińska, I. & Okólski M. (2008). Migracja z Polski po 1 maja 2004 r.: jej intensywność i kierunki geografi czne oraz alokacja migrantów na rynkach pracy krajów Unii Europejskiej. Centre of Migration Research, CMR Working Paper No 33/9, Warsaw: Warsaw University.
Irek, M. (2011). The Myth of ‘Weak Ties’ and the Ghost of the Polish Peasant: Informal Networks of Polish Post-Transition Migrants in the UK and Germany. Working Paper No. 87, Centre on Migration, Policy and Society. Retrieved from: http://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/pub....
Isański, J. & Luczys, P. (2011). Introduction. in: J. Isański & P. Luczys (eds.), Selling One’s Favourite Piano to Emigrate, (pp. xi-xxiv). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Kindler, M. & Napieraƚa, J. (2010). Wstęp. in: M. Kindler, & J. Napieraƚa (eds.), Migracje kobiet: przypadek Polski (pp. 7-36). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe SCHOLAR.
Kofman, E. (2004). Gendered Global Migrations: Diversity and Stratifi cation. “International Feminist Journal of Politics”, Vol. 6, No. 4, 643-665.
Kosack, G. (1976). Migrant women: the move to Western Europe – a step towards emancipation? “Race Class”, 17, pp. 369-379. doi: 10.1177/030639687601700402.
Mason, J. (2002). Qualitative Researching, London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Massey, D., Arango, J., Hugo, G., Kouaouci, A., Pellegrino, A. & Taylor, E. (1993). Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal. in: R. Cohen (ed.), Theories of Migration (pp. 181-216).
Morokvasic, M. (2004). ‘Settled in Mobility’: Engendering Post-Wall Migration in Europe. “Feminist Review”, Vol. 77, 7-25.
Morokvasic, M. (1983). Women in Migration: Beyond the Reductionist Outlook. in: Phizacklea Ann, Ed., One Way Ticket: Migration and Female Labour pp 13-32. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul plc.
Oakley, A. (1981). Interviewing women: a contradiction in terms. in: H. Roberts (ed.), Doing Feminist Research (pp.30-62). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.
ONS (2011). Regional Profi les – Population and Migration – North West – October 2011. Retrieved 25 June, 2012, from: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/... les/population-and-migration/population-and-migration---north-west.html.
Pascall, G. & Kwak, A. (2005). Gender regimes in transition in Central and Eastern Europe. Bristol: The Policy Press.
Pascall, G. & Lewis, J. (2004). Emerging Gender Regimes and Policies for Gender Equality in a Wider Europe. “Journal of Social Policy”, 33(3), pp. 373-394. doi: 10.1017/S004727940400772Z.
Pessar, R. & Mahler, S. J. (2003). Transnational Migration: Bringing Gender in. “International Migration Review”, Vol. 37, No. 3, 812-846.
Phizacklea, A. (1983). Introduction. in: Phizacklea Ann, Ed, One Way Ticket. Migration and Female Labour, pp 1-13. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul plc.
Pidd, H. (2011). Poland: Immigration to UK is back for good life despite economic crisis. “The Guardian”. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/worl....
Plomien, A. (2009). Welfare State, gender and Reconciliation of Work and Family in Poland: Policy Developments and Practice in a New EU Member. “Social Policy & Administration”, 48(2), pp. 136-151. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9515.2009.00652.x.
Pollard, N. & Latorre, M. & Sriskandarajah, D. (2008). Floodgates or turnstiles? PostEU enlargement migration fl ows to and from the UK. London: The Institute for Public Policy Research.
Ramesh, R. (2010). Homeless Poles living on barbequed rats and alcoholic handwash, “The Guardian”. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2....
Ritchie, J., Lewis, J. & Elam, G. (2003). Designing and Selecting Samples. in: J. Ritchie & J. Lewis (eds.), Qualitative Research Practice (pp. 77-137). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Ryan, L., Sales, R., Tilki, M. & Siara, B. (2009). Family Strategies and Transnational Migration: Recent Polish Migrants in London. “Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies”, 35(1), pp. 61-77. doi: 10.1080/13691830802489176.
Ryan L. & Webster W. (2008), Gendering Migration: Masculinity, femininity and Ethnicity in Post-War Britain. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
Scullion, L. & Morris, G. (2010). Central and Eastern European migrant communities in Salford and Bury. Salford: University of Salford.
Siara, B. (2009). UK Poles and the negotiation of gender and ethnicity in cyberspace. in: K. Burell (ed.), Polish migration to the UK in the ‘new’ European Union: After 2004 (pp. 167-187). Farnham: Ashgate.
Slany, K. (2008). Co to znaczy być migrantką? in: K. Slany (ed.) Migracje Kobiet. Perspektywa wielowymiarowa. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.
Stanley, L. & Wise, S. (1990). Method, methodology and epistemology in feminist research process. in: L. Stanley (ed.), Feminist Praxis (pp. 20-60). London: Routledge.
Temple, B. & Judd, D. (2011). Introduction. in: B. Temple & D. Judd (eds.), Polish Journeys: Through Social Welfare Institutions (pp. 9-26). Warszawa: ELIPSA.
Trevena, P. (2009). ‘New’ Polish migration to the UK: A synthesis of existing evidence. ESRC Centre for Population Change Working Paper Number 3. Retrieved from: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/720....
United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (UN-INSTRAW) (2007). Feminisation of Migration. Working Paper 1. Retrieved from: http://www.renate-europe.net/d....
Vertovec, S. (2007). Superdiversity and its implications. [Electronic version]. “Ethnic and Racial Studies”, 30(6), pp. 1024-1054.
White, A. (2011). Polish Families and Migration since EU Accession. Bristol: The Policy Press.
Woodward, K. (2011). The short guide to gender. Bristol: The Policy Press.
Yuval-Davis, N. (1997). Gender & Nation. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Zlotnik, H. (2003). The Global Dimensions of Female Migration, Migration Information Source. Retrieved from: http://www.migrationinformatio....