Editor's Choice
Conditions Leading to the Development of the Post-Socialist Welfare States
More details
Hide details
Social Welfare, Korea National University of Transportation, Korea (South)
Center for Research on Labor and Welfare, Korea Institution for Healthy and Social Affairs, Korea (South)
Kichae Min   

Social Welfare, Korea National University of Transportation, Daesowonmyun, 27469, Chungju, Korea (South)
Submission date: 2022-03-01
Final revision date: 2022-06-27
Acceptance date: 2022-07-10
Online publication date: 2022-10-10
Publication date: 2022-10-10
Problemy Polityki Społecznej 2022;57(2):89–105
This study examines the conditions that explain the development of post-socialist welfare states. We investigated whether theories explaining the development of the Western welfare states applied to post-socialist countries and explored the unique features of the post-socialist welfare states. Methodologically, we use a Fuzzy-set Multiple Conjunctural Causation Analysis to determine the necessary and sufficient conditions for the expansion of social expenditure of 22 post-socialist countries from 2009 to 2011, considering that a single factor does not determine the development of the welfare states, but it can be explained in different ways using a combination of factors. The results found that economic growth, progress in democracy, and population aging—which explain the development of the Western welfare states—explain the expansion of social expenditure in post-socialist countries. However, even in a country with economic growth and democratization, the development of welfare states is slow when the socialist system is maintained for a long time.
Ahn, Sang‐Hoon, and Sophia Seung‐yoon Lee. "Explaining Korean Welfare State Development with New Empirical Data and Methods." Asian Social Work and Policy Review 6, no. 2 (2012), 67-85.
Aidukaite, Jolanta. "The formation of social insurance institutions of the Baltic States in the post-socialist era". Journal of European Social Policy, 16, no.3 (2006), 259-270.
Aidukaite, Jolanta. (2011). "Welfare reforms and socio-economic trends in the 10 new EU member states of Central and Eastern Europe". Communist and post-communist studies, 44, no.3 (2011), 211-219.
Alber, Jens, and Peter Flora. "Modernization, Democratization and the Development of Welfare state in Western Europe." The Development of Welfare state in Europe and America. New Brunswick, NJ, and London, Transaction Books (1981), 37-80.
Beblavy, Miroslav. "Comparative Analysis of Determinants and Effects of Social Protection Spending in the New Eu Member States." (2011).
Bohle, Dorothee, and Béla Greskovits. "Neoliberalism, embedded neoliberalism and neocorporatism: Towards transnational capitalism in Central-Eastern Europe." West European Politics 30. no.3 (2007): 443-466.
Bonoli, Giuliano. "Classifying Welfare state, A Two-Dimension Approach." Journal of social policy 26, no. 03 (1997), 351-72.
Bonoli, Giuliano, and Toshimitsu Shinkawa. "1. Population Ageing and the Logics of Pension Reform in Western Europe, East Asia and North America." In Ageing and Pension Reform around the World, Evidence from Eleven Countries, 1-23. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2005.
Botev, Nikolai. Population ageing in Central and Eastern Europe and its demographic and social context. European Journal of Ageing, 9 .no.1 (2012), 69-79.
Cerami, Alfro. The Politics of Social Security Reforms in Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. A Long‐Good Bye to Bismarck? The Politics of Welfare Reforms in Continental Europe (pp.233-254). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. (2010).
Cerami, Alfro. and Pieter Vanhuysse. Post-communist welfare pathways: theorizing social policy transformations in Central and Eastern Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. (2009).
Cutright, Phillips. "Political Structure, Economic Development, and National Social Security Programs." American journal of sociology 70, no. 5 (1965), 537-50.
Deacon, B. “Developments in East European Social Policy.” In C. Jones, eds. New Perspectives on the Welfare State in Europe. London: Routledge. (1993).
Deacon, Bob. "Developments in East European social policy." New perspectives on the welfare state in Europe. Routledge, 171-191. (2002).
Deacon, Bob, Michelle Hulse and Paul Stubbs. "Global social policy: International organizations and the future of welfare." Global Social Policy, 1-272. (1997).
Esping-Andersen, Gosta. The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. (1990).
Esping-Andersen, G. After the golden age? welfare state dilemmas in a global economy. In G. Esping-Andersen(eds). Welfare states in transition. London: Sage Publications. (1996)..
Ferge, Zsuzsa. "Welfare and ‘ill-fare’systems in Central-Eastern Europe." Globalization and European welfare states. Palgrave, London, 127-152. (2001).
Ferge, Zsuzsa. "Social structure and inequalities in old socialism and new capitalism in Hungary." Review of Sociology 8 no.2 (2002): 9-33.
Gregory, P. R. & Stuart, R. C.(1990). Soviet economic structure and performance(4th). Harper & Row.
Hort, Sven Olsson, and Stein Kuhnle. "The Coming of East and South-East Asian Welfare state." Journal of European Social Policy 10, no. 2 (2000), 162-84.
Inglot, T. Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia: adaptation and reform of the post-communist ‘emergency welfare state’. In A. Cerami & P. Vanhuysse.(eds). Post-communist welfare pathways: theorizing social policy transformations in Central and Eastern Europe. Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke.(2009).
Ko, Hyejin, and Min, Kichae. Determinants of social expenditures in post-socialist countries. Economics and Sociology, 12, no.2 (2019), 253-264.
Kornai, Janos. The socialist system: the political economy of communism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. (1992).
Kudrle, Robert T, and Theodore R Marmor. "The Development of Welfare state." The Development of Welfare state in Europe and America (1981), 81.
Marshall, Thomas H. "Class, Citizenship and Social Development." New York 19642 (1964).
Mulligan, Casey B, Ricard Gil, and Xavier Sala-i-Martin. "Do Democracies Have Different Public Policies Than Nondemocracies?". The Journal of Economic Perspectives 18, no. 1 (2004), 51-74.
Orenstein, Mitchell A. "Postcommunist Welfare state." Journal of Democracy 19, no. 4 (2008), 80-94.
Orenstein, Mitchell Alexander, Stephen R. Bloom, and Nicole Lindstrom, eds. Transnational actors in Central and East European transitions. University of Pittsburgh Pre, 2008.
Pierson, Christopher. Beyond the Welfare State?, The New Political Economy of Welfare. Penn State Press, 1998.
Ragin, Charles C. The Comparative Method, Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies. Univ of California Press, 2014.
———. Fuzzy-Set Social Science. University of Chicago Press, 2000.
———. Redesigning Social Inquiry, Fuzzy Sets and Beyond. Vol. 240, Wiley Online Library, 2008.
———. "User’s Guide to Fuzzy-Set." Qualitative Comparative Analysis (2008).
Rosser, Barry G., and Gregory J. Gores. "Liver cell necrosis: cellular mechanisms and clinical implications." Gastroenterology 108. no.1 (1995): 252-275.
Saint-Arnaud, Sébastien, and Paul Bernard. "Convergence or Resilience? A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of the Welfare Regimes in Advanced Countries." Current sociology 51, no. 5 (2003), 499-527.
Scruggs, L. A., & Allan, J. P. (2008). SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND WELFARE REGIMES FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY Revisiting The Three Worlds of We are Capitalism. World Politics, 60(4), 642-+. doi,10.1353/wp.0.0020.
Standing, Guy. Social protection in central and eastern europe: a tale of slipping anchors and torn safety nets. In G. Esping-Andersen(eds). Welfare states in transition. London: Sage Publications. (1996).
Svetlik, Ivan. Reform of social policy in Slovenia: a soft approach. Journal of European Social Policy, 3, no.3 (1993), 195-208.
Tilly, C. (2007). Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tsou, T.(1987). Marxism, the Leninist party, the masses, and the citizens in the rebuilding of the Chinese state. In S. R. Schram(ed). Foundation and limits of state power in China. London: University of London.
Wagner, Adolf. "The Nature of the Fiscal Economy." Classics in the theory of public finance (1958), 1-8.
Wilensky, Harold L. The Welfare State and Equality, Structural and Ideological Roots of Public Expenditures. Vol. 140, Berkeley, Univ of California Press, 1974.
Wilensky, Harold L, and Charles N Lebeaux. Industrial Society and Social Welfare. Free Press, 1966.