PL EN
RESEARCH PAPER
Can migrant men become more present in elderly care? Comparative analysis of migrant women and men in senior care. Case study from Poland
 
More details
Hide details
1
Wydział Ekonomii i Zarządzania, Politechnika Opolska, Polska
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Sabina Kubiciel - Lodzińska   

Wydział Ekonomii i Zarządzania, Politechnika Opolska, Prószkowska 76, 45-758, Opole, Polska
Submission date: 2021-10-25
Final revision date: 2022-01-24
Acceptance date: 2022-01-25
Online publication date: 2022-04-19
Publication date: 2022-04-19
 
Problemy Polityki Społecznej 2021;55:24–47
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
This paper compares the character of work of migrant women and men in elderly care in Poland. Elderly care is provided mainly by migrant women. Men who work in this sector are in a clear minority. In the presented research a qualitative content analysis has been used. The paper discusses selected results of in-depth interviews conducted among 42 immigrants working in elderly care (11 men and 31 women). It was found that there are differences between sexes. Women indicated, inter alia, the following reasons for taking up work in elderly care: job knowledge, the use of migration chains and altruistic motives. Men did not refer to these factors. They said that they chose this sector because they saw a market gap. The studies showed that gender was often a decisive factor for employment in senior care men. Men are mainly employed to take care of elderly men. Gender can be an important factor in choosing the carer.
 
REFERENCES (93)
1.
Atkinson, R., & Flint, J. (2001). Accessing hidden and hard-to-reach populations: Snowball research strategies. Social research update, 33(1), 1–-4.
 
2.
Bartolomei, M. R. (2010). Migrant male domestic workers in comparative perspective: four case studies from Italy, India, Ivory Coast, and Congo. Men and Masculinities, 13(1), 87–-110. doi: 10.1177/1097184X10382882.
 
3.
Bettio, F., Simonazzi, A., & Villa, P. (2006). Change in care regimes and female migration: the 'care drain' in the Mediterranean. Journal of European Social Policy, 16(3), 271–-285. doi:10.1177/0958928706065598.
 
4.
Brandth, B. (2017). Gender, bodies and work: . Routledge.
 
5.
Bębenek, P. (2015). Enterprise Innovation Management — –Integration of the Process, Product, Marketing and Organization Changes. Effective Transfer of Knowledge from Science to Industry in the Opolskie Voivodeship. Requirements for Effective Cooperation. (165–175), . Difin, Warszawa, 165-175.
 
6.
Bębenek, P. (2017). Effective Innovation Management in a Company– — Innovation Assessment Criteria. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences SGEM2017, Social Sciences & Art.
 
7.
Cangiano, A., Shutes, I., Spencer, S., & Leeson, G. (2009). Migrant care workers in ageing societies: Research findings in the United Kingdom: . Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford.
 
8.
Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis, Sage.
 
9.
Chau, H. S. (2019). Producing (Im)mobilities in home care for the elderly: The role of home care agencies in switzerland. International Journal of Ageing and Later Life, 13(2), 23–-50. doi:10.3384/ijal.1652-8670.18396.
 
10.
Da Roit, B., & Van Bochove, M. (2014). Migrant workers in long-term care in the Netherlands from a comparative perspective: a literature review. Report prepared for Movisie.
 
11.
Degiuli, F. (2007). A job with no boundaries: Home eldercare work in Italy. European Journal of Women's Studies, 14(3), 193–-207. doi: 10.1177/1350506807079010.
 
12.
Elrick, T., & Lewandowska, E. (2008). Matching and making labour demand and supply: Agents in Polish migrant networks of domestic elderly care in Germany and Italy. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 34(5), 717–-734. doi:10.1080/13691830802105954.
 
13.
England, K., & Dyck, I. (2011). Managing the body work of home care. Sociology of Health & Illness, 33(2), 206–-219. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9566.2010.01331.x.
 
14.
Ezzeddine, P. (2014). Who caresCares? (Ageing, Care and Migration). Lidé města, 16(2).
 
15.
Fiałkowska, K., & Matuszczyk, K. (2021). Safe and fruitful? Structural vulnerabilities in the experience of seasonal migrant workers in agriculture in Germany and Poland. Safety Science, 139, 105275. doi:10.1016/J.SSCI.2021.105275.
 
16.
Fraser, N. (1995). Widerspenstige Praktiken. Macht, Diskurs, Geschlecht. DEUTSCHE ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PHILOSOPHIE, 43, 1062–-1065.
 
17.
Gallotti, M. (2009). The gender dimension of domestic work in Western Europe: . ILO.
 
18.
Goel, K., & Penman, J. (2015). Employment experiences of immigrant workers in aged care in regional South Australia. Rural and Remote Health, 15(1), 14.
 
19.
Gordolan, L., & Lalani, M. (2009). Care and Immigration: migrant care workers in private households. Kalayaan report in collaboration with the Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, Kalayaan, . London.
 
20.
Górny, A., Madej, K., & Porwit, K. (2020). Ewolucja czy rewolucja? Imigracja z Ukrainy do aglomeracji warszawskiej z perspektywy lat 2015–-2019. CMR Working Papers 123 (181).. Retrieved from ????????.
 
21.
He, J. C., Kang, S. K., Tse, K., & Toh, S. M. (2019). Stereotypes at work: Occupational stereotypes predict race and gender segregation in the workforce. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 115, 103318. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2019.103318.
 
22.
Heckathorn, D. D. (1997). Respondent-driven sampling: A new approach to the study of hidden populations. Social Problems, 44(2), 174–-199. doi:10.1525/sp.1997.44.2.03x0221m.
 
23.
Hochschild A.R. (2000). Global Care Chains and Emotional Surplus Value, In: T. Giddens and W. Hutton eds. On the Edge: Globalization and the New Millenium, 130-146, London: Sage Publishers.
 
24.
Hochschild, A. R. (2012). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling: Univ of California Press.
 
25.
Holstein, M. (2001). Ethics in community-based elder care: . Springer Publishing Company.
 
26.
Hrženjak, M. (2013). Negotiating masculinity in informal paid care work. International Review of Sociology, 23(2), 346–-362. doi:10.1080/03906701.2013.804296.
 
27.
Huang, S., Thang, L. L., & Toyota, M. (2012a). Transnational mobilities for care: rethinking the dynamics of care in Asia. Global Networks- — a Journal of Transnational Affairs, 12(2), 129–-134. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0374.2012.00343.x.
 
28.
Huang, S., Yeoh, B. S., & Toyota, M. (2012b). Caring for the elderly: the embodied labour of migrant care workers in Singapore. Global Networks, 12(2), 195–-215. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0374.2012.00347.x.
 
29.
Hussein, S., Stevens, M., & Manthorpe, J. (2013). Migrants’ motivations to work in the care sector: experiences from England within the context of EU enlargement. European journal Journal of ageingAgeing, 10(2), 101–-109. doi: 10.1007/s10433-012-0254-4.
 
30.
Iredale, R. (2016). High-Skilled Migration. In F. D. Bean & S. K. Brown (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Migration. (pp. 1–-10). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
 
31.
Isaksen, L. W. (2012). Transnational Spaces of Care: Migrant Nurses in Norway. Social Politics, 19(1), 58–-77. doi:10.1093/sp/jxr029.
 
32.
Isaksen, L. W. (2017). Gender and care: the role of cultural ideas of dirt and disgust: . Routledge.
 
33.
Jacoby, D. (2006). Caring about caring labor: An introduction. In: Sage Publications Sage CA: Thousand Oaks, CA.
 
34.
Jonson, H., & Giertz, A. (2013). Migrant Care Workers in Swedish Elderly and Disability Care: Are They Disadvantaged? Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39(5), 809-825. doi:10.1080/1369183x.2013.756686.
 
35.
Jönson, H., & Giertz, A. (2013). Migrant Care Workers in Swedish Elderly and Disability Care: Are They Disadvantaged? Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39(5), 809–-825. doi:10.1080/1369183X.2013.756686.
 
36.
Kałuża-Kopias, D. (2018). Imigranci w systemie opieki nad osobami starszymi, . Rynek Pracy, vol. 3, 36–- 45.
 
37.
Kilkey, M. (2010). Men and domestic labor: A missing link in the global care chain. Men and masculinitiesMasculinities, 13(1), 126–-149. doi: 10.1177/1097184X10382884.
 
38.
Kilkey, M., Lutz, H., & Palenga-Möllenbeck, E. (2010). Introduction: Domestic and care work at the intersection of welfare, gender and migration regimes: Some European experiences. Social Policy and Society, 9(3), 379–-384. doi:10.1017/S1474746410000096.
 
39.
Kindler M. (2008). „Niewidoczna” praca – ukraińskie migrantki pracujące w charakterze pomocy domowych w Polsce. In: Migracje kobiet. Perspektywa wielowymiarowa, K. Slany (ed.), Kraków.
 
40.
Kindler M., Kordasiewicz A., Szulecka M. (2016). Care needs and migration for domestic work: Ukraine-Poland, International Labour Office, Geneva.
 
41.
Kloc-Nowak W. (2007). Funkcjonowanie imigrantek z Ukrainy na polskim rynku pracy – sytuacja obecna i rekomendacje dla społeczeństwa przyjmującego, Analizy, raporty, ekspertyzy, nr 9, Stowarzyszenie Interwencji Prawnej.
 
42.
Krajewska, A. (2012). „Polityka braku polityki”: imigrantki w polskim sektorze opieki nad osobami starszymi. Societas/Communitas, 13(1), 57–-79.
 
43.
Król H., Ludwiczyński A. (2006), Zarządzanie zasobami ludzkimi. Tworzenie kapitału ludzkiego w organizacji, Warszawa.
 
44.
Kubiciel-Lodzińska, S. (2021). Snowball Sampling vs. Respondent Driven Sampling in Regional Research. Comparing the use of the Methods to Study Migrants Working in Elderly Care. Studia Migracyjne– — Przegląd Polonijny, 1 (179), 149–-180. doi: 10.4467/25444972SMPP.21.007.13319.
 
45.
Kubiciel-Lodzińska, S. (2019). The role of Immigrants in Providing Elderly Care Services for an Ageing Polish Population: Complementary or Substitutionary. Problemy Polityki Społecznej, 45(2), 87–-104. doi: 10.31971/16401808.45.2.2019.5.
 
46.
Kubiciel - Lodzińska S. (2020). Płeć ważniejsza niż wykształcenie? Obecność mężczyzn obcokrajowców w opiece senioralnej w Polsce, Wyzwania społeczne i technologiczne a nowe trendy w zarządzaniu współczesnymi organizacjami, M. Urbaniak, A. Tomaszewski (eds)., Wydawnictwo SGH.
 
47.
Lasota E. (2008). Praca domowa imigrantek a proces urynkowienia ról społecznych Polek, in: K. Slany (ed.). Migracje kobiet. Perspektywa wielowymiarowa, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.
 
48.
Lovelock, K., & Martin, G. (2016). Eldercare work, migrant care workers, affective care and subjective proximity. Ethnicity & Health, 21(4), 379–-396. doi:10.1080/13557858.2015.1045407.
 
49.
Lutz, H. (2002). At your service madam! the globalization of domestic service. Feminist Review, (70), 89–-104. doi: 10.1057/palgrave/fr/9400004.
 
50.
Lutz, H. (2016). Migration and domestic work: A European perspective on a global theme: . Routledge.
 
51.
Mahler, S. J., & Pessar, P. R. (2006). Gender matters: Ethnographers bring gender from the periphery toward the core of migration studies. International migration review, 40(1), 27–-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2006.00002.x.
 
52.
Maj, J. (2017). Diversity Management Instruments in Polish Organisations. Journal of Corporate Responsibility and Leadership, 4(1), 39–-54. doi: 10.12775/JCRL.2017.003.
 
53.
Maj J., 2020, Stakeholder approach to diversity management: Stakeholder analysis in Polish organizations, International Journal of Organizational Diversity, 20 (1), 25–-43. dDoi 10.18848/2328-6261/CGP/V20I01/25-43.
 
54.
Manalansan IV, M. F. (2006). Queer intersections: Sexuality and gender in migration studies. International Migration Review, 40(1), 224–-249. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2006.00009.x.
 
55.
Martin, S., Lowell, B. L., Gozdziak, E. M., Bump, M., & Breeding, M. E. (2009). The role of migrant care workers in aging societies. Report on Research Findings in the United States, Institute for the Study of International Migration, Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, Washington DC.
 
56.
Morales-Moreno, I., Giménez-Fernández, M., & Echevarría-Pérez, P. (2015). The cultural dialogue on the domestic dimension of care to immigrant caregivers in Spain. Revista latino-americana de enfermagem, 23(5), 821–-828. doi: 10.1590/0104-1169.0442.2620.
 
57.
Morgan, D., Brandth, B., & Kvande, E. (2017). Thinking about gender, bodies and work. In Gender, bodies and work. (pp. 1–-15): ). Routledge.
 
58.
Negin, J., Coffman, J., Connell, J., & Short, S. (2016). Foreign-born aged care workers in Australia: A growing trend. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 35(4), E13–-E17. doi:10.1111/ajag.12321.
 
59.
Nicolescu, G. (2019). Keeping the Elderly Alive Global Entanglements and Embodied Practices in Long-Term Care in Southeast Italy. Anthropology & Aging, 40(1), 77-+. doi:10.5195/aa.2019.202.
 
60.
Näre, L. (2009). The making of ‘proper’homes: Everyday practices in migrant domestic work in Naples. Modern Italy, 14(1), 1-17. doi: 10.1080/13532940802535408.
 
61.
Näre, L. (2010). Sri Lankan men working as cleaners and carers: Negotiating masculinity in Naples. Men and Masculinities, 13(1), 65–-86. doi: 10.1177/1097184X10382881.
 
62.
Näre, L. (2013). Migrancy, Gender and Social Class in Domestic Labour and Social Care in Italy: An Intersectional Analysis of Demand. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39(4), 601–-623. doi:10.1080/1369183X.2013.745238.
 
63.
OECD. (2020). Who Cares? Attracting and Retaining Care Workers for the Elderly. OECD Health Policy Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/92c0ef....
 
64.
OECD, C. (2011). Help wanted? Providing and paying for long‐ — term care. Private Long‐ — term Care Insurance: A Niche or a “Big Tent”? Private Long-term Care Insurance: A Niche or a “Big Tent", in Help Wanted?: Providing and Paying for Long-Term Care, OECD Publishing, Paris. doi: 10.1787/9789264097759-13-en.
 
65.
Organiściak-Krzykowska, A., & Kowalewska, G. (2021). Factors Determining Migration Decisions of Nursing Students from Eastern Poland. Problemy Polityki Społecznej. Studia i Dyskusje, 52, 40-61. doi: 10.31971/pps/135783.
 
66.
Palenga-Möllenbeck, E. (2013). Care chains in Eastern and Central Europe: Male and female domestic work at the intersections of gender, class, and ethnicity. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 11(4), 364–-383.doi : 10.1080/15562948.2013.822955.
 
67.
Parreñas, R. (2020). Servants of Globalization: . Stanford University Press.
 
68.
Pavolini, E., & Ranci, C. (2008). Restructuring the welfare state: reforms in long-term care in Western European countries. Journal of European Social Policy, 18(3), 246–-259. doi:10.1177/0958928708091058.
 
69.
Pemberton, S., & Stevens, C. (2010). The recruitment and retention of Central and Eastern European migrant workers in the United Kingdom: a panacea or a problem under the new policies of ‘Managed Migration’? Regional Studies, 44(9), 1289–-1300. doi: 10.1080/00343400903365185.
 
70.
Perrons, D., Plomien, A., & Kilkey, M. (2010). Migration and uneven development within an enlarged European Union: fathering, gender divisions and male migrant domestic services. European Urban and Regional Studies, 17(2), 197–-215. doi: 10.1177/0969776409357362.
 
71.
Pinquart, M., & Sörensen, S. (2006). Gender differences in caregiver stressors, social resources, and health: An updated meta-analysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61(1), P33–-P45. doi: 10.1093/geronb/61.1.P33.
 
72.
Piore, M. J. (1979). Birds of passage: migrant labor and industrial societies. Cambridge.
 
73.
Piotrowski, M. (2019). Krótkoterminowe zatrudnienia cudzoziemców w Polsce. Zmiany zasad i ich ocena. Studia Prawno-Ekonomiczne, (113), 243–-257. doi: 10.26485/SPE/2019/113/14.
 
74.
Ramirez, H., & Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (2009). Mexican immigrant gardeners: entrepreneurs or exploited workers? Social Problems, 56(1), 70–-88. doi: 10.1525/sp.2009.56.1.70.
 
75.
Sarti, R. (2006). Domestic service: Past and present in Southern and Northern Europe. Gender & History, Vol. 18 No. (2), 222–-245. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0424.2006.00427.x.
 
76.
Sarti, R. (2010). Fighting for masculinity: Male domestic workers, gender, and migration in Italy from the late nineteenth century to the present. Men and Masculinities, 13(1), 16–-43. doi: 10.1177/1097184X10382879.
 
77.
Sauberer, G., Maj, J., Senichev, V., 2018, How to Leverage the Potential of Diverse and Virtual Teams and Benefit from Diversity Management? In: Larrucea X., Santamaria I., O'Connor R., Messnarz R. (eds) Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement. EuroSPI 2018. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 896. Springer, Cham, 529-540. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-97925-0_45 Communications in Computer and Information Science, 896, 529–-540.
 
78.
Schwiter, K., Strauss, K., & England, K. (2018). At home with the boss: Migrant live-in caregivers, social reproduction and constrained agency in the UK, Canada, Austria and Switzerland. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 43(3), 462–-476. doi:10.1111/tran.12235.
 
79.
Scrinzi, F. (2010). Masculinities and the international division of care: Migrant male domestic workers in Italy and France. Men and Masculinities, 13(1), 44–-64. doi: 10.1177/1097184X10382880.
 
80.
Sobiesiak-Penszko, P. (2015). Niewidzialna sila siła robocza: migranci w usługach opiekuńczych nad osobami starszymi: . Fundacja Instytut Spraw Publicznych.
 
81.
Solari, C. (2006). Professionals and saints: How immigrant careworkers negotiate gender identities at work. Gender & Society, 20(3), 301–-331. doi: 10.1177/0891243205285633.
 
82.
Storm, P., & Lowndes, R. (2019). “" YES, THE GUYS CAN DO IT!”": MIGRANT MALE CARE WORKERS IN CANADIAN AND SWEDISH NURSING HOMES. Teorija in Praksa, 56(4), 1052–-1068.
 
83.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1994). Grounded theory methodology, Handbook of qualitative research, 17, 273-285.
 
84.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. M. (1997). Grounded theory in practice: Sage.
 
85.
Szukalski, P., Oliwińska, I., Bojanowska, E., & Szweda-Lewandowska, Z. (2008). To idzie starość– — polityka społeczna a przygotowanie do starzenia się ludności Polski. Instytut Spraw Publicznych, Warszawa.
 
86.
Triandafyllidou, A. (2016). Irregular migration and domestic work in Europe: who cares? In Irregular Migrant Domestic Workers in Europe. (pp. 17–-32): ). Routledge.
 
87.
Tronto, J. C. (1995). Women and Caring: What Can Feminists Learn About Morality from Caring?[1989]. In Justice and care (101-116). Routledge.
 
88.
Van Hooren, F. (2010). When families need immigrants: The exceptional position of migrant domestic workers and care assistants in Italian immigration policy. Bulletin of Italian Politics, 2(2), 21–-38.
 
89.
van Hooren, F. J. (2012). Varieties of migrant care work: Comparing patterns of migrant labour in social care. Journal of European Social Policy, 22(2), 133–-147. doi:10.1177/0958928711433654.
 
90.
Willis, E., Xiao, L. D., Morey, W., Jeffers, L., Harrington, A., Gillham, D., & De Bellis, A. (2018). New migrants in residential aged care: Managing diversity in not-for-profit organisations. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 19(3), 683–-700. doi: 10.1007/s12134-018-0564-2.
 
91.
White A. (2020), New receiving countries and the European ‘mobility laboratory’: integration and family reunification aspirations among Ukrainians in Płock, . “Studia Migracyjne —– Przegląd Polonijny”, 4 (178): ). 27––47. DOI: 10.4467/254449.
 
92.
72SMPP.20.037.12774.
 
93.
Yeates, N. (2004). Global care chains. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 6(3), 369–-391. doi: 10.1080/1461674042000235573.
 
ISSN:1640-1808