Multiplied insecurity. The Japanese classical musicians on the Polish and French labor market
More details
Hide details
Institute of the Middle and Far East, Faculty of International and Political Studies, Jagiellonian University [Instytut Bliskiego i Dalekiego Wschodu, Wydział Studiów Międzynarodowych i Politycznych, Uniwersytet Jagielloński]
Publication date: 2020-05-19
Corresponding author
Beata Kowalczyk   

Institute of the Middle and Far East, Faculty of International and Political Studies, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 3, 30-387 Krakow; author’s email address: beata.1.kowalczyk@
Problemy Polityki Społecznej 2018;43:85-105
The purpose of this article is to analyze the dynamics of trajectories of Japanese classical musicians residing in Europe — in Poland and France — who, by their professional qualifications, fall into a category of highly skilled professionals, yet at the same time experience their situation of migration similarly to economic migrants, or middling migration (Scott, 2006; Boyle, 2006). Among many factors shaping the European careers of Japanese migrant musicians, I will pay particular attention to the following combination of three elements: (1) structural and legal regulations that shape artistic labor market in general and the situation of migrant artists in particular, (2) the role of social and (3) cultural capital. The intersectional analysis of the professional situation of migrantartists attempts to demonstrate how these musicians by their profession on the one hand and ethnic origins on the other are trapped into multiplied insecurity. This study rests on the material collected upon qualitative methods of individual, in-depth, semistructured interviews conducted among 50 Japanese classical musicians in their mother tongue, as well as quantitative data (statistics of musical competitions, orchestras, music academies, etc.).
Anderson, C. J., Pontusson, J. (2007), Workers, worries and welfare states: Social protection and job insecurity in 15 OECD countries. European Journal of Political Research, 46: 211–235. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-6765.2007.00692.x.
Becker, H.S. (2008). Art Worlds. Berkeley–London: University of California Press.
Bourdieu, P. (1979). La distinction: Critique sociale du jugement. Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit.
Boyle, M. (2006). Culture in the Rise of Tiger Economies: Scottish Expatriates in Dublin and the ‘Creative Class’ Thesis. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol. 30, iss. 2, p. 403–426. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2427.2006.00661.x.
Buscatto, M. (2004). De la vocation artistique au travail musical: Tensions, compromis etambivalences chez les musiciens de jazz. Sociologie de l’Art, OPuS 5, p. 35–56. DOI: 10.3917/soart.005.0035.
Buscatto, M. (2007). Femmes du jazz: musicalités, féminités, marginalités. Paris: CNRS éditions.
Buscatto, M., Marry, C. (2009). Le ‘plafond de verre’ dans tous ses éclats. La féminisation des professions supérieures au XXe siècle — Introduction du numéro spécial. Sociologie du Travail, vol. 51, iss. 2, p. 170–182. DOI: 10.1016/j.soctra.2009.03.002.
Couch, S.R. (1989). The Orchestra as Factory: Interrelationships of Occupational Change, Social Structure and Musical Style. In: A.W. Foster, J.R. Blau (eds.), Art and Society: Readings in the Sociology of the Arts. (293–306). Albany: State University of New York.
Coulangeon, P. (2004). Les musiciens interprètes en France: Portrait d’une profession. Paris: Ministère de la culture et de la communication, Département des études et de la prospective.
Crenshaw, K. (1995). Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color. In: K. Crenshaw, N. Gotanda, G. Peller, K. Thomas (eds.), Critical Race Theory: The Key Writing that Formed the Movement. (357–383). New York: New Press.
Esser, I., Olsen, K.M. (2012). Perceived Job Quality: Autonomy and Job Security within a Multi-Level Framework. European Sociological Review, vol. 28, iss. 4, p. 443–454.
Faulkner, R.R. (1973). Career Concerns and Mobility Motivations of Orchestra Musicians. The Sociological Quarterly, vol. 14, no. 3, p. 334–349.
Faulkner, R.R. (1983). Music on Demand: Composers and Careers in the Hollywood Film Industry. New Brunswick–London: Transaction Publishers.
Faulkner, R.R., Anderson, A.B. (1987). Short-Term Projects and Emergent Careers: Evidence from Hollywood. American Journal of Sociology, vol. 92, no. 4, p. 879–909.
Frederickson, J., Rooney, J.F. (1990). How the Music Occupation Failed to Become a Profession. International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music, vol. 21, no. 2, p. 189–206.
Główny Urząd Statystyczny (2014). Działalność instytucji kultury w Polsce w 2013 r. Available at: [access date: 31.05.2017].
Górny, A., Grabowska-Lusińska, I., Lesińska, M., Okólski, M. (eds.) (2010). Transformacja nieoczywista. Polska jako kraj imigracji. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.
Heinich, N. (2000). Être écrivain: Création et identité. Paris: Editions La Découverte.
Héran, F. (2012). Parlons immigration en 30 questions. Paris: La Documentation Française.
Khodyakov, D.M. (2007). The Complexity of Trust-Control Relationships in Creative Organizations: Insights from a Qualitative Analysis of a Conductorless Orchestra. Social Forces, vol. 86, no. 1, p. 1–22.
Kofman, E. (2012). Gender and skilled migration in Europe. Cuadernos de Relaciones Laborales, vol. 30, no. 1, p. 63–89.
Kofman, E. (2016). Globalization and Labour Migrations. In: S. Edgell, H. Gottfried, E. Granter (eds.), The SAGE Handbook of the Sociology of Work and Employment. (597–615). London: SAGE.
Lehmann, B. (2002). L’orchestre dans tous ses éclats: Ethnographie des formations symphoniques. Paris: La Découverte.
Menger, P.-M. (1998). Le travail et l’invention artistiques: Les figures de l’incertitude. Revue Belge de Musicologie, vol. 52, p. 165–174.
Menger, P.-M. (1999). Artistic Labor Markets and Careers. Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 25, p. 541–574.
Menger, P.-M. (2010). Les artistes en quantités. Ce que sociologues et économistes s’apprennent sur le travail et les professions artistiques. Revue d’Économie Politique, vol. 120, p. 205–236.
Morrison, A.M., White, R.P., Van Velsor, E. (1987). Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Can Women Reach the Top of America’s Largest Corporations? Cambridge: Perseus Publishing.
Paugam, S. (2000). Le salarié de la précarité. Les nouvelles formes de l’intégration professionnelle, Paris: Presses universitaires de France.
Reunion des Operas de France (ROF). Available at: date: 14.09.2017].
Sayad, A. (1999). La double absence. Des illusions de l’émigre aux souffrances de l’immigre. Paris: Seuil.
Scott, S. (2006). The Social Morphology of Skilled Migration: The Case of the British Middle Class in Paris. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 32, iss. 7, p. 1105–1129.
Stalker, P. (1994). The work of Strangers: A Survey of International Labour Migration. Geneva: International Labour Office.
Wagner, A.-C. (1998). Les nouvelles élites de la mondialisation: une immigration dorée en France. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Wagner, I. (2014). Work and career aspects of ‘ghetto laboratories’. In: K. Prpić, I. van der Weijden, N. Asheulova (eds.), (Re)searching Scientific Careers. (145–170). St. Petersburg: Institute for the History of Science and Technology (IHST), St Petersburg Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) Publishing House “Nestor-Historia”, Sociology of Science and Technology Network (SSTNET) of the European Sociological Association (ESA).
Wagner, I. (2015). Producing Excellence: The Making of Virtuosos. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Westby, D.L. (1960). The Career Experience of the Symphony Musician. Social Forces, vol. 38, no. 3, p. 223–230.
Winker, G., Degele, N. (2011). Intersectionality as multi-level analysis: Dealing with social inequality. European Journal of Women’s Studies, vol. 18, iss. 1, p. 51–66. DOI: 10.1177/1350506810386084.
Zezwolenie na pobyt rezydenta długoterminowego UE. Available at: [access date: 23.02.2017].
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top