Public perception of Syrian refugees in Turkey: an empirical explanation using extended integrative threat theory
Mehmet Hanefi Topal 1  
,   Ufuk Özer 2  
,   Emrah Dokuzlu 3  
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Gümüşhane University
Kırklareli University
Polish Academy of Science
Mehmet Hanefi Topal   

Gümüşhane University, Department of Public Finance, IIBF, Merkez, 29100 Gümüşhane, Turkey; author’s internet address:
Ufuk Özer   

Kırklareli University, Department of Labor Economics and Industrial Relations, Kayalı Campus, 2. Main Building, 39100 Kırklareli, Turkey; author’s internet address:
Emrah Dokuzlu   

Polish Academy of Science, Graduate School for Social Research, Department of Sociology, Nowy Świat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland; author’s internet address:
Publication date: 2020-05-22
Problemy Polityki Społecznej 2017;38:35–58
Turkey has provided asylum for Syrian refugees following the civil war in Syria. This process has given rise to considerable public debate, which is often associated with negative attitudes within the community. Previous studies have indicated that realistic and symbolic threats are important components of the integrated theory of threat for understanding opposition towards immigrants and refugees. But the extended Integrative Threat Theory (ITT) suggests that the citizens of the host country may perceive refugees as both threat and benefit. The purpose of this study is to examine the public perception of Syrian refugees in Turkey using extended ITT model. The main results of the analysis are that Turkish people perceive Syrian refugees both as a threat and benefit. Nevertheless, benefit perception is higher than threat perception in Turkey.
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